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Places


Geographical location and natural resources of Kyrgyzstan led to its central position in a zone of Central Asian civilization. Country ancient times was the pass on the busy trade routes between East and West. Today, the development of tourism on the ancient Silk Road, it is not only a tribute to the rich history of the country, but the opening half-forgotten pages of the past all human civilization. Many travelers find the Kyrgyz most attractive, affordable and friendly region of all the Central Asian republics, particularly given the availability of this beautiful natural sites - the Central Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai, the most beautiful mountains of Central Asia.

Bishkek

Bishkek (Pishpek, from 1926 to 1991. - Frunze) lies in the northern part of the country, in the Chui valley at the foot of the Kyrgyz Range. The city was founded in the years 1868-1878. on the site of an ancient fort, Julie, built more kokandtsami and destroyed in 1862 by Russian troops, on the banks of the rivers of the Ala-Archa and Alamedin. Now it is the capital and largest industrial center in Kyrgyzstan, its political, cultural and educational "heart" and the only city in the world, named after the wooden household tools ("Bishkek" can be translated as "churn" or "stick to kumys). It is a modern city with wide streets and beautiful buildings, compare favorably in this from many other cities in the region, as it once was based on the European plan. It is also one of the greenest cities in the CIS, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan and one of the most multicultural capitals of the continent (there are representatives of more than 80 ethnic groups and peoples).

Historical buildings in the city does not do, affects the relatively young age. But people in this place settled in the time of the Bronze Age, so Bishkek land carries a lot of historical mysteries. Almost in the residential neighborhoods in the north-eastern part of town is a fort "Forging fortress" (VII-XIV centuries. Now the area of the fortress rather unsightly), "Pishpek fort" (VII-XII centuries). Pishpek and the ruins of the fortress.

The wide, lined with shady trees, street Soviet, located Kyrgyz State Academic Opera and Ballet after A. Moldybaeva, Library behalf Chernyshevskogo and the State Art Museum. Also worthy of attention "Old Square", located on its historical museum, madrassas Abdulkasyma, communal grave in Oak Park, a complex "Manas", Panfilov Park and its fountains, the Russian Drama Theater named after Krupskaya and the Kyrgyz National Drama Theater, the Historical Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, State Memorial Museum of Frunze, Kyrgyz State Historical Museum, National Museum of Fine Arts Aitieva, A. Tokombaev Museum, the Museum of Literature and Art Toktogula Zoological Museum and the Museum of Mineralogy. By the city's cultural landmarks also include the City Theatre of Drama, National Philharmonia Satylganov, the Bishkek Academy of Arts and Drama Theatre. Also noteworthy Oak and Central Park - a vast green area, within which there are several museums, including the sculptures under the open sky, scattered among the alleys and park lawns.

Surrounding the capital, lying in the remaking of the beautiful Chui valley, famous for its mountains and rivers are extremely diverse environmental systems, whose high-altitude zonation can be seen here, even with the naked eye. In the vicinity of the capital are such natural objects as beautiful gorge Chunkurchak upstream Alamedin, nearby Alamedin field of thermal waters, the State Botanical Preserve Jong-irrigation ditch in the wooded area Besch Küng, scenic natural valley of Kara-Balta, Aspara, Dzhilamish and Kegety with his famous waterfall. Historical monuments most of the Chui Valley just as varied - Krasnorechenskoe fort (38 km north of the city, X-XII cc.) Ruins Zoroastrian buildings, ruins of ancient cities Balasagun (Coos Horde) - Historical and cultural zone "Buran" (50 km from the capital) with the famous "Burana Tower" (height 21 m, XI b), fort of Ak-Beshim (Suyab ruins of the city - the capital of the Western Turkic kaganata and state Karluk, XIII-XV cc.) complex with its medieval Christian churches, burial grounds, ruins of ancient Chumysh Fortress (IX-X centuries.) and the many petroglyphs on the rocks of the same name around it. Also attractive mound Tourte-Kul, Issyk-Ata petroglyphs depicting the Buddha (VII-VIII cc.), Natural and historical and cultural monuments of Issyk-Ata, Shamshy (Shams), Chon-Kemin and Ak-Suu that are among the monuments of universal values.

Nowhere else in Central Asia have not found such a number of outputs of healing waters, as in the Chui Valley. Aksu mineral waters located in the same valley, 80 km south-west of the village Belovodskoe. Local mineral water in its chemical composition is similar to the famous mineral water resort Siberian Dara Suna. Also important are hydrothermal well Shabyr, Kamyshanovskoe Lugovskoj slightly saline and hydrogen sulphide deposits of curative mud and 130 hot springs resort town of Issyk-Ata (the first water treatment appeared here in II n. E.).

Among the juniper and alpine meadows of the Chui Valley and are attractive recreational areas such as ski-sport base Chon-Tash (about 25 km from the capital) and the eponymous river with steep and picturesque beaches, plateaus Kairak, upper and lower basins Tatyr, Waterfalls Koguchken-Sugata , hot keys Alamedin (8 km above the "Wolf Gate") and placed them sanatorium "Warm Springs", glacier valleys Ken-Tor, beautiful tract of Kara-Bulak, Tash-Bashat, Norus, Ooru-Sai, Bir-Bulak (Crimson Gorge) and Toguz-Bulak, plateau Kairak, caves Kara Unkur and glacier Kel-Ter, rock 'Alamedin walls, narrow "Wolf Gate" through which the river breaks through the vast space Alamedin Baytikskoy valley and mountain Uluu-Too (Botwe , 4009 m).

Ala-Archa

Valley of the Ala-Archa - one of the main attractions of neighborhoods in Bishkek. Here, in the narrow valley of the usual, in general, mountain rivers, concentrated so much stunning beauty of landscapes, waterfalls and unusual rock formations, so rich in flora and fauna, which many consider the area a true symbol of the Kyrgyz Range (Ala-). Almost the whole valley is included in the National Park Ala-Archa protecting relict juniper forests mountains of Asia, almost nowhere are no longer occurring, and the rich fauna of mountain Tien Shan - are home to ibex, Elik (roe), snow partridge ( snowcock), stone partridge (rock ptarmigan), squirrels, hares, wild boars, foxes, badgers, ermine, martens and porcupines, as well as beautiful snow leopard is listed in the Red Book. Nearby is the village Baytik, named in memory of the country's national hero, who lived in VXI century - Kanai uulu Baytik (Baytik-Baatyr). Slope snowy mountains is his grave - Baytik-Kumbez, which is a historical monument and a place of pilgrimage for the Kirghiz and visitors. Here, nearby, a lot of focus alplagerey serving a starting point for numerous hiking and horse riding trails in the surrounding mountains, as well as several ski centers, year-round employees principal place of recreation for the citizens of the capital. Mountain slopes of the Tien Shan mountains offer excellent conditions for skiing. Sports centers are sufficiently numerous, but the level of service to them is low, and the rest developed infrastructure is relatively weak. Along the river Clover-Suu, a tributary of the river Ala-Archa, in the tract of the same name, there are 4 ski base for winter skiing enthusiasts. Around Bishkek, as well as in the gorges Aspara, Dzhilamish, Kara-Balta and Kegety, ski resorts more modern and accessible.

Talas

In the north-east, in the Talas region of great interest to tourists are enormous canyons, cut by the walls of the Talas Range numerous local rivers, dozens of beautiful lakes and waterfalls waterfalls. In the upper reaches of the Talas River are famous burial Ken Cole (I millennium. E.), As well as the mausoleum Kumbez-Manas (XIV century.) Museum-Reserve "Manas" and the mosque, forming a national historical and cultural complex "Manas-Ordos . In the upper valley stretches Aflatun titled State Reserve, protecting endemic fir Semenov.

Lake Issyk-Kul

On the territory of Kyrgyzstan, there are about two thousand high-mountain lakes, but the jewel of the country and all of the Tien Shan is Lake Issyk-Kul and Issyk-Kul (in translation from Kyrgyz - "hot lake", from the ancient - "holy lake"), an area of 6236 sq. . km with a maximum depth of 702 m. The first mention of the Issyk-Kul is found in Chinese chronicles the end of II century BC, where it is called Jeu-Hai ("warm sea"). Lake lies on the north-east of Kyrgyzstan, at an altitude of 1,606.7 meters above sea level, in the vast tectonic depression formed over 50 million years ago. Immediately adjacent to the lake Priozernaya narrow plain, cut in beds of many rivers (80). Hollow ring surrounds Terskey-Ala-Too ("facing the sun") and Kyung-Ala-Too ("facing the sun"), rising to heights of 4500-5000 m. The ring of mountains, as it protects the lacustrine basin of the penetration of cold air from the north and the hot air from the deserts of Central Asia because the climate is fairly mild, which makes the Issyk-Kul, one of the largest resorts in Central Asia. The water temperature in summer reaches 24 C in winter - 4 C (here it is, the origin of his name). Bathing season lasts 6 months, and outdoor recreation is possible all year round.

Flowing from the mountains, clean rivers constantly replenish the lake basin, but the water in the Issyk-Kul, salt (5.8 ppm at the surface to 18 - at the bottom), which, coupled with its unique mineral composition of the local rivers gives never-freezing lake water deep blue . In this case, depending on the location and time of day, water color can vary from pale blue to dark blue tones. And the transparency of water in the open part of the basin reaches 12-16 m. The beauty of the lake was amazing, PP Semenov-Tian-Shansky compared it to the Lake of Geneva in Switzerland, with a preference of the Issyk-Kul. The coastline of the lake quite cut up - there are about 20 picturesque bays and coves. The crystal clear water, mineral springs in conjunction with the mountain and at the same time soft, almost maritime climate, create unique conditions for the spa area with mud and thermal treatment.

Around the lake stretched out a whole string of resort towns and villages, many of which during the Soviet era have all-union significance and popularity. The best resorts Cholpon-Ata on the north shore (it was once a resort Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan, now here is interesting local history museum), Karakol, with its wooden Orthodox Church of Holy Trinity, the same wooden Dungan Mosque and the Museum of Przewalski's - the best starting point for research Lakes and adjacent mountain towns Tup, Ottuk, Balykchy (Fishing) and others. It is also well-known valley of Altyn-Arashan (located 30 km east of Karakol at an altitude of 3000 m) with its beautiful scenery and hot springs nearby Issyk-Ata mineral waters (77 km south-east of Bishkek), Kumtor gold mine (south shore of Issyk-Kul), grand canyon Dzholbors, cliffs, canyons Jets-Oguz, Boom Gorge with its fantastic red cliffs and a waterfall in the gorge Barskaunskom (height waterfall about 100 meters).

On the territory Priissykulya has about 1500 historical monuments, of which 320 are under state protection. The most important are Sakas "Royal Burial Mound" (VII in BC. E. - II in n. E.) Near the village of Kurmenty, cemeteries Kok-Bulak and Karashar (a total of about a thousand graves Usun tribes) the writing Tibetan the writing of a religious nature stone Tamga-Tash (VI-I centuries. BC. e.) cluster of petroglyphs (II millennium BC. e. - VIII in. n. e.) in Cholpon-Ata, and further along the coast until Tamchy, as well as the Cape of Holy Nose to the north-eastern tip of the lake - the location of the legendary monastery of the Armenian Christian Church (IV-V cc.) in which, according to legend, the tomb of St. Matthew the Apostle. And at the bottom of the lake are the ruins of about two dozen sunken ancient cities - Sary-Bulun, Koysary, Ulan (XII century) and so on, who died of water levels in the Issyk-Kul. They found many historical and cultural values of the Saka-Usun period (I millennium BC. E.) And the early Middle Ages.

Best time to visit Lake Issyk-Kul - September, while trekking in the mountains of better conduct in the period between July and August.

Central Tien Shan

Central Tien Shan - the tallest and most majestic part of the Tien Shan mountain system. This is a huge "node" of mountain chains with a total length of about 500 km from west to east and 300 km - from north to south. This is the most picturesque region of the Tien Shan, a complex system of overlapping mountain ranges (Terskei-Ala-Too, Sary-Jazz-Kui Liu, Tengri-Tag, Enilchek, Kakshaal-Too, meridional ridge, etc.), crowned with majestic peaks the most northern of the highest mountains of the planet - Lenin Peak (7134 m.), Pobeda Peak (7439 m.) and the fantastic pyramid of Khan-Tengri (7010 m, probably the most beautiful and difficult to climb the peak of the Tien Shan). In the north ridge Boro Horo connects the Tien Shan system Djungarian Alatau. Almost the whole territory of this region is located above the mark 1500 m above sea level, and the mountain peaks covered with centuries-old snow caps, which generate many tens of glaciers, rivers and streams. Ice fields and glaciers here are more than 8000, the most representative of which are Southern (length about 60 km) and northern (35 km) Inylchek (Enilchek, "Little Prince"), Dzhetyoguz-Karakol (22 km), Kaindy (26 km) , Semenova (21 km) and others, whose total area exceeds 8100 square meters. km.

The relief from most of the Tien Shan mountain ranges, heavily dissected by numerous valleys (northern slopes are cut much more southern), with a strongly developed glacial forms. On the slopes of many landslides, there are glaciers, the glaciers - moraines, and at the foot - many cones. Mountain river valleys have large elevation changes and well-marked step profile with a flat boggy terraces - sazami. Many large valley surrounded by high mountain plateaus - Syrt "whose height sometimes reaches 4700 m. On the plateau and the highlands of the medium-altitude mountain ranges stretch alpine pastures" jailoo ", covered with grasses and alpine meadows. At altitudes from 1000 to 2000 meters foot ridges bordered by the foothills adyry. There are about 500 lakes, the largest of which are the Son-Kul (Sleep-Kul - "vanishing lake", 270 sq. km.) And Chater-Kel (Chater-Kul, 153 sq. km.).

Central Tien-Shan - a real Mecca of international climbers, so it is a neighborhood seventhousanders are the most studied part of the Tien Shan. The most popular points of attraction for mountaineers and trekkers are areas of the ridge Tengri-Tag, and the peak of Khan Tengri (Lord of Heaven ", 7010 m) pass Tomur, Pobeda Peak (7439 m) and Glacier Inylchek Basin unique Merzbacher Lake in eastern mountains system, the peak of the Semenov-Tian-Shansky (4875 m), the peak of Free Korea (4740 m) and the famous Corona (4855 m) in the Kyrgyz Range, Communism peak (7505 m) and peak Korzeniowski (7105 m, this is the Pamirs, but few of the climbers would agree to pass these great mountains), ice wall ridge Kakshaal-Too (Kokshaal-Tau), which comprises three peaks with a height of 6000 meters and about a dozen peaks higher than 5000 m, the array Ak-Shyyrak and many more, no less attractive regions.

Despite the harsh climate and mountainous landscape, the Tien Shan territory has been inhabited since ancient times, which are seen numerous stone carvings, petroglyphs and burial grounds, abundant scattered across this mountainous country. Widely represented historical and cultural monuments of the medieval period - fortified settlements like Koshoy-Korgon that arose on the basis of nomadic encampments, Khan rates and on the caravan routes from the Ferghana valley through the Tien Shan. One of the most famous and popular tourist attractions of this region is a caravanserai Tash-Rabat (X-XII cc.), Built in hard to reach but picturesque valley of Kara-Koyun. It is also widely known Saimaluu or Saimaly Tash-Tash ("Pattern stones") - a gallery of rock paintings in the same valley (more than 107 thousand petroglyphs II-III millennia BC. E.) Near the Kazarman, stone sculptures, Kyr-Jol (VI -VIII cc.) on the shores of Lake Son-Kul, petroglyphs Chumysh rocks (III-I millennia BC. e, Fergana mountain range), numerous rock paintings of the Issyk-Kul, Naryn and Talas oblasts. Also noteworthy is the ancient caravan route through the Torugart Pass (elevation 3752 m). This extended (total length of approximately 700 km) route from Central Asia to China Kashgar (Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous District) is the cold, narrow gorges and passes of Turk's Ala-Too, Mold, Tool, At-Bashy and Maydantaga through beautiful landscapes and grand ancient caravan routes of the Silk Road.

West Tian Shan

Mountain system of the West Tien Shan lies on the edge of the Tien Shan mountain country, leaving his spurs to the hot sands of the deserts of Central Asia. The relief of these sites is somewhat lower than in the central part of the mountain system, more extensive surface alignment, and the lofty plateau of the less numerous (Palathon, Angren, Ugam and Karzhantau - all in the west region). Highest points of the western Tien Shan are Chatkal peak (4503 m) in the same range, the peak of Manas (4482 m) in the Talas Alatau mountain Baubash-Ata (4427 m) in the western part of the Fergana Range. Glaciation slightly, the snow line is at altitudes 3600-3800 m on the northern slopes and 3800-4000 m in the south. Rivers of Western Tien-Shan (Angren, Akbulak, Itokar, Karaunkur, Cox, Maidantal, Maili-Suu, Naryn, Oygaing, Padysha-Ata, Pskem, Sandalash, Ugam, Chatkal and others) rapids are glacial and snow board, and proceed through narrow gorges (upstream), in the middle reaches are typically broad valleys, but in the lower back form canion form. The best places for rafting and white water rafting than the local river, just hard to find.

Vegetation of the Western Tien Shan, despite the small amount of precipitation falling here, quite diverse - steppes and deciduous forests in the lower tier, scrub and grasslands, on average, as well as alpine meadows and alpine heathland close to the top. Here lives about 370 species of animals and about 1200 species of higher plants, and difficult terrain leads to the formation of numerous local ekotsenozov inhabited by unique species of plants and animals. Therefore, mountain areas of the West Tien Shan, though mastered by tourists to a much lesser extent than the eastern areas, but have their sights set beyond doubt. The level of complexity of the hikes are much lower, so they may participate less prepared for the tourists, but their relatively small extent of further facilitates the passage. The easiest routes are laid through the ridges Keksuysky, Kuramin, Sargardon-Cumbel, Ugam and Chatkal. A somewhat more complex, II-III categories, go through the Talas Alatau, Pskem and Maidantal (Maydantagsky) ranges, the mountains Baubash-Ata, Isfana-Dzhaylyau, Kekirim-Tau (Fergana mountain range), with the most complex routes are in the same territories, capturing the vicinity of the peaks Chatkal (4503 m), Manas (4482 m) and Kattakumbel (3950 m) and Babayob (3769 m), benefit of the relief is so diverse, which allows in a single pass route plots of all levels of complexity.

The best time for trekking in the mountains of Western Tien-Shan - from late April to late October, but already in March and May are seen as a huge number of organized groups, as well as "wild" tourists.

Osh

The second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the southwestern part of the country, at the northern foot of Kichi-Alay Range, near the Uzbek border. The name of the city are believed to be derived from the word "Hosh" ("pretty", "Enough"), which said Suleiman, who came to this earth (although many people associate his name with a distorted word "guyshan" - so called capital of the state I Davanskogo century BC. ah, lying just on the site of modern Osh). Although Oshu a conservative estimate of about 2500 years, from its former greatness survived quite a bit of evidence. Its main attraction is the Suleiman-Too (Mount Suleiman) or Takht-Sulaiman (throne of Solomon, "that is the biblical King Solomon), located right in the heart of the city. Already in the X century, this obscure at first glance, the rocky hills stretching pilgrims from all over Asia, because from time immemorial is that it is here that the Prophet Suleiman appealed to God, but the stones were left imprints on his forehead and knees. Over this sacred place for every Muslim, Muhammad Zakhiriddin Babur (1483-1530 Gg.), Grandson of Tamerlane and the founder of Mughal dynasty, built a small hudzhru (cell) with the mihrab, in the place where today stands the white stone mosque and recreated on archival sources " Babur's House. According to legend it was on this mountain, a woman may ask God to send down to her child, and on top is legendary trail test "by which, according to legend, could never get no adulteress. On the antiquity of the place and the many petroglyphs show (about 440, dated IIX-II cent. BC. E.), With which abound in hills and caves of the mountains. Most of the mountain is now in the National Museum "The Great Silk Road and includes a mausoleum Asaf ibn Burhiya, the ruins of baths (XI-XII centuries., Now a museum under the open sky), Takht Suleiman Mosque and the Jamia Mosque Rawat Abdullakhan (both X-XI cc.).

Other temptations include Osha Alymbekov Paravanchi madrassas, madrasas Muhamedboy Türk Hal Muratbaev, madrasas Hazrat Muhammad Damulla Sydykov Akhund Aglam (all XII-XVII centuries.) Orthodox Church of Archangel Michael (the beginning of the twentieth century), ancient settlement of Ak-Buura, History and Local Lore museums, museum of local crafts, the memorial complex "Eternal Flame" (1976) with the memorial "Grieving Mother" (1990), Kyrgyz Drama Theatre, art gallery "Saltanat, monuments A. Orozbekova, Sultan Ibraimov, Kurmanjan-Dutka, Toktogul Satylganov , Niyazaly and Moldoniyazu, and, of course, colorful and always noisy bazaar on the banks of the river Ak-Buura, which is considered no less years than the city itself.

Around the city are also many interesting places, starting with resorts stows Kojo-Keulen, Chil-Ustun, Abshyr-Ata, Kara-Coy, Zhylu-Suu, Kojo, Keulen, Achyk-Tash or mineral springs in the tract of Kara-Shoro, caves "Chil-Ustun, and ending with the tourist zones of the Kara-Taala (Oi-Tal, Azhike, Cooloon Cole and others). The roads from Bishkek to Osh in the Fergana and further pass through a sequence of stunning mountain landscapes, through the passes of the Ala-Bel (3600 m) and Tuya-Ashuu (3400 m) past the majestic mountains with elevations up to 3500 m and deep gorges, past the picturesque mountain range Suusamyr, Toktogul basin and the valley of the Naryn River. A famous stretches north of Osh Sary Reserve Chelek ("yellow cup") and the magnificent lake of the same name, lies at an altitude of 1873 m above sea level. Huge interest usually cause dome mausoleum Shah-Fazil (XI-XII cc.) In the village of Safid-Bulend, cave Chil-Ustun, canyon Aravan-Dang, waterfall Abshire Sai, petroglyphs Surat-Tash and Nookat, caves Azhidaar-Unkur and barite, as well as numerous ancient settlement and burial.

Jalal-Abad (Jalal-Abad)

The second largest city in the southern part of the country and the third - the most Kyrgyzstan, Jalal-Abad is quite young, he was a little over 120 years. However, in the vicinity of the city people settled from time immemorial. The reason was not only favorable natural and climatic conditions of the region, but also well-known medicinal thermal springs are abundant around the city. Already in the II century. BC. Oe. their sulphate-sodium-calcium bicarbonate water and mud used to treat many ailments, but sources themselves were considered sacred to them every year many pilgrims flocked. According to legend, here is the source of Chashma Ayub (Job Source), which, according to legend, visited the Prophet Ayub (biblical Job). Now the main activities are concentrated in the resort complex "Jalal-Abad, located 5 km from the city, at an altitude of 975 m above sea level.

Uzgen

One of the oldest cities of Central Asia, Uzgen lies in the south of Kyrgyzstan, Kara-Darya valley, the river Oi-Tal. The town originated in the early I millennium as a trading settlement Uz (Uzgend), through which passes the caravan routes from Samarkand to Kashgar. By the VIII-IX centuries. Uzgen overgrown with strong walls, and to the XII century it became the capital of the dynasty Karakhanids and one of the centers of the Ferghana Khanate. Time has left us almost no evidence of ancient grandeur Uzgen from its many mosques and madrasas once have survived a medieval town planning with one-storey buildings and narrow streets, as well as the Minaret (XII century, height 44 meters) from the madrasas and three mausoleums Dynasty Karakhanids - Medium (early XI), northern (1152-1153 Gg.) and southern (1186-1187 Gg.) decorated with beautiful brick ornament. According to legend, one of the tombs lies the body of the country's national hero - Manas. Also, if certain desire can be found remnants of Uzgen fortresses, shrines and burial XI-XII centuries.

Between Uzgen and the village of Kara-Yining is Kara-Daria mound (III-IV centuries. BC. E.) And mound Shoro-Bashat (area about 70 hectares, IV-V centuries. BC. E.) With extensive ruins of the times Kushan Empire. Not far from the resort town of Kara-Shoro with the same source of mineral water, and tourist center of Salam-Alik. 

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